Reproductive Health Revision Notes For NEET


        Reproductive health refers to total well-being in physical, emotional, behavioural and social aspects of reproduction.

        Reproductive health and childcare programmes work to create awareness among the people about reproduction related aspects. They provide facilities and support to build up reproductively healthy society.

        Population explosion is a sudden increase in the population in a relatively small period of time. It occurs due to increased health facilities and better living conditions.

        Birth control is a only solution of checking population growth. These methods are categorised as follows

  Natural methods of birth control involve avoiding chances of meeting of sperm and ovum. It can be periodic abstinence, coitus interruptus and lactational aminorrhoea, etc.

  Barrier methods are based on the prevention of ovum and sperms coming close. These can be condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, vaults, etc.

  Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs) are the devices introduced into the uterus in order to suppress the motility and fertilising ability by releasing ions such as Cu2+ by making uterus unsuitable for implantation. These include lippes loop, Cu-T, LNG-20, progestasert, etc.

  Oral contraceptives are hormonal preparation in the form of pills. These can alter or inhibit ovulation and implantation, e.g. saheli, mala-D, mala-N, etc.

  Surgical or Sterilisation methods are used in male/female to prevent pregnancy. They are available as tubectomy in men and vasectomy in females.

  Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) is the intentional termination of pregnancy before reaching full term.

        Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic technique in which a sample of amniotic fluid is taken from uterus of pregnant woman to detect the chromosomal anomalies in foetus.

        Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are the diseases that are mainly passed from one person to another during sexual contact. These include gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydiasis, trichomoniasis, aids, genital herpes, etc.

        Infertility is the biological inability of a person to produce offsprings. The reasons of infertility could be physical, congenital diseases, drugs, immunological or psychological factors.

        Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) is a general term used for methods to achieve pregnancy by completely or partially artificial means.

        In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) is a technique of initiating fertilisation of an egg and a sperm outside the female body followed by embryo transplant in womb.

        Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is carried out by directly injecting sperm into the cytoplasm of ovum.

        In Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT), gametes are taken from the donors and are injected in woman that can provide suitable conditions for fertilisation.

        In Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT) zygote is transferred into oviducts.

        Testicular Sperm Extraction (TSE) is a surgical technique to collect sperm from the testis or epididymis of a man.

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