Human Health And Diseases Revision Notes For NEET

HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES

        Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Any deviation from the state of well-being results in a disease.

        Diseases are caused by various microorganisms called pathogens. They are divided into congenital and acquired diseases.

        Acquired diseases are further categorised into communicable and non-communicable diseases. These are seen in an organism after birth.

        Communicable disease spread from one person to another. The causative agent or pathogen for the disease could be Virus, Protozoa, Bacteria, Fungus, Helminthes, etc.

        Pathogens enter the body by various routes, multiply and interfere with normal vital activities.

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BACTERIAL DISEASES                    

Disease

Causative agent

Symptoms

Typhoid

Salmonella typhii

High fever, Weakness, Headache and Loss of appetite.

Pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

Fever, Chills, Cough and Headache in severe cases, The lips and finger nails may turn grey to bluish in colour

VIRAL DISEASES

Common cold

Rhino viruses

Nasal congestion and discharge, Sore throat, Hoarseness cough, Headache and Tiredness.

PARASITIC DISEASES

Malaria

Plasmodium (P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum)

High fever, Chills, Sweating fatigue, Weakness, Loss of appetite

Amoebiasis

Entamoeba histolytica

Constipation, Abdominal pain and cramps, Stools with excess mucus and blood clots.

DISEASES CAUSED BY WORMS

Ascariasis

Ascaris lumbricoides

Include internal bleeding, Muscular pain, Fever, Anaemia and blockage of the intestinal passage.

Filariasis

Wuchereria (W. bancrofti and W. malayi)

Chronic inflammation and Deformation of the organ and genital organs.

Rings worms

Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton

Appearance of dry, Scaly lesions on various parts of the body such as skin, nails and scalp.

 

        AIDS is the most fatal viral disease caused due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It damages the immune system of the body and as a result, the natural defence of human body is gradually lost.

        Non-communicable diseases are those diseases which do not spread from a person to another person. These can be deficiency diseases, allergies, mental illness, malfunctioning diseases, etc. Among non-communicable diseases cancer affects large number of individuals worldwide.

        Cancer involves uncontrolled division of cells in an abnormal manner as a result it spreads in the body and affects the surrounding tissues. It forms masses of tissue called tumour, which are of two types benign and malignant.

        Cardiovascular diseases are the ones which involve blood vascular system and heart. Some of the diseases associated with it are arteriosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

        Arthritis is one autoimmune disease which is characterised by inflammation of the joints. Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout and septic arthritis are its major classifications.

        Schizophrenia is a mental order characterised by hallucinations, delusion, disorganised thinking and speech. Recovery is possible through rehabilitation programs, self-help groups, counsellings or medication.

        Community health is an important concept which aims at the protection, maintenance and health of the program.

        Community health services works in different departments. These are Health Centres, National Programmes, Universal Immunisation Programmes, Blood Banks.

         Besides personal hygiene and cleanliness, these services aim at generating awareness about health, educating people and helping them in the best possible way.

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